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Today Poland has a very active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace.
Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda created a unique style, which was most famous in the s and s and continues to be popular to this day.
Art in Poland has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Polish artist was Tamara de Lempicka , who specialized in the style of Art Deco and whose paintings are often collected by celebrities and well-known personas.
Prior to the 19th century only Daniel Schultz and Italian-born Marcello Bacciarelli had the privilege of being recognized abroad. Within historically-orientated circles, Henryk Siemiradzki dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Roman theme.
Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the s the Polish School of Posters was formed.
Although not Polish, the work had a strong influence on Polish culture and has been often associated with Polish identity.
Polish cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of European architectural styles. Romanesque architecture is represented by St.
Nonetheless, a number of ancient structures has survived: The centre of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town.
The second half of the 17th century is marked by baroque architecture. The profuse decorations of the Branicki Palace in Warsaw are characteristic of the rococo style.
Traditional folk architecture in the villages and small towns scattered across the vast Polish countryside is characterized by its extensive use of wood as the primary building material.
Some of the best preserved and oldest structures include wooden churches , and tserkvas primarily located across southern Poland in the Beskids and Bieszczady regions of the Carpathian mountains.
Within Polish literary customs, it is appropriate to highlight the published works concerning Poland not written by ethnic Poles.
The most vivid example is Gallus Anonymus , a foreign monk and the first chronicler who described Poland and its territories.
The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" , reflecting the culture of early Poland.
Most medieval records in Latin and the Old Polish language contain the oldest extant manuscript of fine Polish prose entitled the Holy Cross Sermons , as well as the earliest Polish-language bible, the so-called Bible of Queen Sophia.
A Polish writer who utilized Latin as his principal tool of expression was Klemens "Ianicius" Janicki , one of the most renowned Latin poets of his time, who was laureled by the Pope.
Throughout this period Poland also experienced the early stages of Protestant Reformation. During the Polish Baroque era, the Jesuits greatly influenced Polish literature and literary techniques, often relying on God and religious matters.
Jan Chryzostom Pasek , also a respected baroque writer, is mostly remembered for his tales and memoirs reflecting sarmatian culture in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Nicholas Wisdom , which was a milestone for Polish literature. A Polish prose poet of the highest order, Joseph Conrad , the son of dramatist Apollo Korzeniowski , won worldwide fame with his English-language novels and stories that are informed with elements of the Polish national experience.
The history of Polish cinema is as long as history of cinematography itself. Over decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved world fame, especially in Hollywood.
Moreover, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern-day television. In , Jan Szczepanik , obtained a British patent for his Telectroscope.
This prototype of television could easily transmit image and sound, thus allowing a live remote view. Following the invention of appropriate apparatus and technological development in the upcoming years, his then-impossible concept became reality.
Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period. The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri.
During this time, the Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland. Films in the Yiddish language with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk , played an important part in pre-war Polish cinematography.
Poland has a number of major media outlets, chief among which are the national television channels. Poland has several hour news channels: Rzeczpospolita , founded in is one of the oldest newspapers still in operation in the country.
Poland has also emerged as a major hub for video game developers in Europe, with the country now being home to hundreds of studios.
Polish cuisine shares many similarities with other Central European cuisines, especially German and Austrian  as well as Jewish ,  Belarusian , Ukrainian , Russian ,  French and Italian culinary traditions.
Festive meals such as the meatless Christmas Eve dinner Wigilia or Easter breakfast could take days to prepare in their entirety. The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals.
Other frequently consumed beverages include various mineral waters and juices, soft drinks popularized by the fast-food chains since the late 20th century, as well as buttermilk , soured milk and kefir.
The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the s and went on until the early s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing 3rd place in the and the tournaments.
The team won a gold medal in football at the Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in and in He won the Canadian Grand Prix and now does rallying following a crash in that left him unable to drive F1 cars.
Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob , a highly successful Polish rider. The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland.
The national speedway team of Poland , one of the major teams in international speedway,  has won the Speedway World Team Cup championships three times consecutively, in , , and No team has ever managed such feat.
Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders. Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country.
Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world. Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity.
Poland belongs to one of the most fashionable and best-dressed countries in the world. Moreover, several Polish designers and stylists left a lifelong legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics , which are still in use nowadays.
Throughout history, the clothing styles in Poland often varied due to foreign influence, especially from the neighbouring countries and the Middle East.
Because of its geographical position, Poland was metaphorically referred to as a trade route that linked Western Europe with the Ottoman Empire , Crimean Khanate and Persia.
This allowed the Poles to absorb several habits, which were present in the Middle East at the time. The high-class nobility and magnates wore attire that somewhat resembled oriental styles.
Wealthy Polish aristocrats also kept captive Tatars and Janissaries in their courts; this affected the national dress.
The Polish national dress as well as the fashion and etiquette of Poland also reached the royal court at Versailles in the 18th century.
In the early 20th century, the underdeveloped fashion and cosmetics industry in Congress Poland was heavily dominated by western styles, mostly from the United Kingdom and the United States.
This inspired Polish beautician Maksymilian Faktorowicz to seek employment abroad and create a line of cosmetics company called Max Factor in California.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dance, see Polska dance. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita Polska disambiguation. For other uses, see Poland disambiguation.
Show map of Europe. History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland. History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union.
Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland. Administrative divisions of Poland. Energy in Poland and Coal mining in Poland.
Demographics of Poland , Demographic history of Poland , and Polish diaspora. List of cities and towns in Poland.
Largest cities or towns in Poland Central Statistical Office population report for Polish language and Languages of Poland. Religions in Poland Roman Catholicism.
Ballade form invented by Chopin. Inspired by poems of Adam Mickiewicz. Polish literature and History of philosophy in Poland. Cinema of Poland and Theatre of Poland.
Television in Poland and Media of Poland. Video gaming in Poland. The percentages of ethnic Poles and of minorities depend on how we count.
Dziewanowski has noted that "if Polish forces fighting in the east and west were added to the resistance fighters, Poland had the fourth largest Allied army in the war after the USSR, the U.
The confusion often stems from the fact that as war progressed, some resistance movements grew larger — and other diminished.
Polish territories were mostly freed from Nazi German control in the years —45, eliminating the need for their respective anti-Nazi partisan forces in Poland although the cursed soldiers continued to fight against the Soviets.
Several sources note that Polish Armia Krajowa was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe.
After that point, the numbers of Soviet partisans and Yugoslav partisans begun growing rapidly. The numbers of Soviet partisans quickly caught up and were very similar to that of the Polish resistance.
Number and demographical-social structure. Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica in Polish. National Census of Population and Housing ] in Polish.
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