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Dürrenmatt stand damals sehr stark in Rebellion gegen den festen Glauben des Elternhauses. Gehen Sie bequem anderen Tätigkeiten nach, während wir Ihnen den Artikel vorlesen. My gratitude goes to the KON-BigBand which Beste Spielothek in Senden finden live later on the same day and provided the right background music for the video clip. Das bedeutet das unwiderrufliche Ende ihres normalen Lebens mit Freunden und Familie. Fratzen gezeichnet Fratzen gezeichnet Verwirrend, weil deplaciert wirkend: Er war den Reaktionen ausgeliefert. Lass doch los und lösche dieses Bild von dir, das du in alle Galerien hängst.

In a permissive society oversaturated with entertainment, where values have become relativized, behavioral codes are of lesser importance, where food is thrown away by the tons daily, dreadlocks are fashionable, and where soap and shampoo commercials have taken over the role of preachers of personal cleanliness, Struwwelpeter has become a cultural icon devoid of its original meaning, message, and connotations, ready to become part of the postmodern play of allusions.

Parodies of the original like F. The story number five about Frida who does not want to eat her chocolate doll is a case in point:.

The translation here is rendered without rhyme. In German the jingle calls forth immediate associations with the original Struwwelpeter verse: The image of the middle-aged Struwwelpeter from the same picture book seems symptomatic of the Struwwelpeter reception in the late twentieth century.

From revolting youngster Struwwelpeter has grown into a bald family father, his loss of hair connoting his loss of wildness, revolt, and power.

Ashton, Susanna and Amy Jean Petersen. Was niemand wissen kann. Seltsame Verse und sonderbare Geschichten.

Keine Denunciation, sondern eine Warnung. Kaspar Braun and Friedrich Schneider. Weinheim, Berlin and Basel: Verlag Julius Beltz, From the twenty-third edition of the celebrated German work of Dr.

Janet and Anne Grahame Johnstone. Reprint of original manuscript. Ein Brief an die Redaktion der Gartenlaube.

Heinrich-Hoffmann-Museum der frankfurter werkgemeinschaft e. Heinrich Hoffmann Museum, Detlef Hoffmann and Jens Thiele.

Ecrits et images Zur Ikonographie der 2. Museum Villa Stuck, Radical students quickly recognized that the struggle against arbitrary authority as a manifestation of monopoly capitalism would be a long one and that the power of authority not only lay in the control of the government and economic process but was also deeply rooted in the control over child rearing and the education system.

Certainly it will call our traditional views into question. For the most part, they convey a distinct image of the world to children and foster the ideological hegemony of ruling-class interests.

Nor is there a conscious plan to produce books which nullify the potential for creativity and critical thinking in children. Here many factors must be taken into consideration.

The communicative function of the language and images should help the child improve his or her learning ability and creative potential. Restricted codes and closed reference systems should be avoided.

Each new book should try to incorporate the most recent pedagogical and psychological discoveries about education and society in order to increase the emancipatory value of the book.

In this respect the entire question of book production and the reception of a book must be reconsidered to include the participation of children in the entire process.

Ultimately, if this is done, the term classical will take on another, more authentic meaning. Most have unfortunately retained classical status because they are still useful in the indoctrination of children to the standards of a ruling class and also serve the market needs of the book industry.

Not only have all children in German-speaking countries from the late nineteenth century to the present been predominantly influenced by these two books, but children in America as well.

Struwwelpeter was written in by the physician Heinrich Hoffmann, who could not find an appropriate book for his three-year-old son and decided to write his own, based on stories he used to tell his young patients to prevent them from becoming disruptive and getting upset.

Up through there have been over six hundred different German editions and numerous translations, not to mention the hundreds of imitations and parodies.

There is hardly a German adult or child who does not know that Struwwelpeter is everything one is not supposed to become, the model of the disobedient child who never cuts his fingernails and lets his hair grow wild—in short, a barbarian.

The rhymed, illustrated stories which follow our introduction to him present a composite picture of Struwwelpeter: All the stories are written to frighten the young reader, and the illustrations are correspondingly gruesome and terrifying.

Adults generally find them comical. Only one of the stories involves a little girl. As always, the assumption is made that little girls are more docile and obedient than little boys, who are terrors.

The danger of Struwwelpeter and its imitations stems from the fact that it can be easily comprehended by children from age two on and has indeed stamped the consciousness of German children for generations.

Struwwelpeter glorifies obedience to arbitrary authority, and in each example the children are summarily punished by the adult world.

No clear-cut reasons are given for the behavior or the punishment; discipline is elevated above curiosity and creativity. It is not by chance, then, that this book has retained its bestseller, classical status to the present.

In addition, there have been several film versions. In , Shirley Temple played Heidi in a sentimental Hollywood production. There have also been records, an opera, and an American musical based on the book.

Like Struwwelpeter, Heidi is a conservative product of the nineteenth century which has been kept very much alive in the twentieth. Spyri, a devout Christian, projects a vision of a harmonious world which can only be held together by Judeo-Christian ethics and God himself.

Briefly, her story concerns a five-year-old orphan, Heidi, who is sent to live on top of a Swiss mountain with her grandfather, a social outcast.

After three years, her aunt, who works in Frankfurt, comes to fetch her so that she can become a companion to a rich little girl who is crippled.

Both the aunt and the rest of the Swiss village think it will be better for Heidi, for they have a low opinion of the grandfather and feel that Heidi needs to be educated.

For the grandfather, who has come to love Heidi deeply, this is a devastating blow, and he becomes more of a misanthrope. In Frankfurt, Heidi turns a wealthy bourgeois household upside down with her natural ways, which are contrasted with the artificial and decadent ways of the city people.

Nevertheless, she endears herself to the grandmother, Klara the cripple, the businessman father, and their servants. Only the governess and teacher cannot grasp her "wild" ways.

Indeed, as Heidi begins to wane, God interferes in the person of the doctor, who advises the businessman to return Heidi to the grandfather.

When Heidi is sent back to the mountains, the grandfather is ecstatic and becomes convinced that it was an act of God which brought about the return of his granddaughter.

Although there are abridged versions for younger children, Heidi was essentially written for the child ten and over. Quite opposite to Struwwelpeter , it concerns the experiences of a little girl, who is made into some kind of an extraordinary angel, a nature child with holy innocence, incapable of doing evil, gentle, loving, and kind.

At first, she does not comprehend the world, but as she grows, everything is explained to her according to the accepted social and religious norms of the day.

Here it is important to see the pedagogical purpose of the narrative and its dependence on the traditional Bildungsroman.

Heidi learns that the world is static and directed by God. Although she is disturbed that her grandfather and relatives are poor and must struggle merely to subsist, the grandmother in Frankfurt brings her to believe that God wants it that way and that material poverty is insignificant when one considers the real meaning of richness: While the simple, pious community of the Swiss village is contrasted with the false, brutal life in the city, Spyri does nothing to explain the real contradictions between city and country.

The hard life in the Swiss mountains becomes idyllic. There the people are pure and closer to God. The world of Switzerland caters to the escapist tendencies of readers who might seek release from the perplexing, difficult conditions of urban life.

Heidi, too, is a figure of the infantile, regressive fantasy which desires a lost innocence that never was. Since natural equals Christian in this book, there is no way in which children can comprehend what really is a natural or socially conditioned drive.

In both instances, the classical stature of the books is closely linked to their commodity value. The three are Basis, Weismann, and Rowohlt. Basis Verlag, like Oberbaum and Das rote Kinderbuch, 11 developed from a collective which worked in daycare and youth centers during the late s and has continued this work, largely in Berlin.

The members of Basis are socialists, who see their task as preparing the base for a new socialist society.

Their main emphasis is on the production of books for children between the ages of four and twelve, although they have also produced a comic book and photographic story for apprentices who work in factories.

The Basis books for children were developed at a time when the anti-authoritarian phase of the New Left was coming to an end in West Germany—that is, the phase when arbitrary authority was defied for the sake of defying authority.

Though there are some anti-authoritarian elements in Basis books, their main goal is to demonstrate how working collectively can lead to a greater sense of oneself and the world and to the resolution of problems confronting children in their everyday lives.

Six of the works written between and will give an example of the aims and production methods of the Basis Verlag: Then we called up our friends and asked them if they would like to dress up and play a knight, poet, king, or bear.

And when they all said yes, then we acted out the entire story, and Ute photographed us. Dieter and Reiner printed the pictures and the story, and in the end, the bookbinders made the book into a real book.

Both think up traditional stories: The two stories come together as the bear meets the knight in the woods. They decide to go play with the children in the local neighborhood set in the present instead of fishing and fighting.

The poets become angry that their heroes have abandoned their traditional roles and story-lines and go searching for them. They come across some knights who, sent by the king to fight against the peasants, have been soundly defeated.

The poets complain that this normally does not happen in stories, but the knights argue that something is wrong with the usual stories since the peasants had never harmed them—that is, until the king had sent them to destroy the peasants.

They all decide to turn against the king, and with the help of the bear, the loyal knight, and the children, they capture the king, stuff him, and set him up as a monument in a park as a warning to all monarchs.

The country then belongs to everyone and is renamed country of the knights, peasants, poets, bears, and children. Here the traditional manner of telling fairy tales which glorify feudalism is criticized in a novel way.

The subtle use of photographs and comics adds to the Brechtian estrangement effect, which prompts children to think critically and creatively throughout the story.

The main difficulty with the narrative is that the social message and aesthetic innovations are perhaps too complex for a child to understand alone.

This story uses only photographs and combines elements from well-known folktales to illustrate housing problems in the city.

Four young people all in their twenties decide to live together: Schlienz, who can smell extraordinarily well; Minzl, who can hear long distances; Gorch, who can run faster than cars; and Atta, who is tremendously strong.

They rent an apartment, and the landlord tries to cheat them. However, they are too smart for him, and ultimately they set up a collective household which runs smoothly until the landlord raises the rent arbitrarily.

The four decide to organize the tenants in the entire building to fight and protest the hike in rent, and they use their extraordinary talents to unite the tenants and take over the building.

However, since the people come from different classes a teacher, bank clerk, metal worker, insurance inspector, and railroad worker and have different interests, the landlord is able to play upon the divisiveness in the coalition and, with the help of the police, defeat the strike.

Schlienz, Minzl, Gorch, and Atta are arrested. Nevertheless, while in prison, they reconsider their strategy and make plans so that they can be successful the next time they try to organize the tenants.

The book closes with a series of newspaper articles about landlords cheating tenants. The photographs in this story combine humor with accurate depictions of housing conditions.

The remarkable talents of the heroes are not so fantastic that they might lead children to have unreal expectations of their own powers.

The fact that the four heroes two men and two women do not succeed shows to what extent the authors clearly understand the stage of the social struggle within the cities.

Here the emphasis is not so much on gaining a victory but on creating a sense of need for collective action.

When she goes on a quest to find out the answers, information about salaries, work conditions, rents, and social classes is conveyed to her and, of course, to the readers.

This information is incorporated into the story through questions, comics, photographs, and charts. After numerous adventures, Renate and two friends come across two young factory workers who spend time with them to clarify everything and who explain that the social contradictions can only be overcome by workers who learn to trust one another and cooperate to take over the means of production.

Only through this type of action will the social disparities that confront Renate during the day be eliminated. Krach auf Kohls Spielplatz is for three-year-olds.

Andrea is troubled by Theo Kohl, who controls the playground because his father is rich and owns the construction company which employs most of the parents living in the housing settlement and neighborhood.

Theo manages to bribe Joachim, the strongest boy, with candy to act as "law enforcer"—that is, until Andrea and the other children get together and unite to defeat Theo and Joachim and set up mutually beneficial rules of play.

Though the book is instructive in pointing out the link between a bully and the possession of money, the language and pictures of the story are so devoid of imagination that the message will have only a minimal effect upon young readers.

This is not the case with Krokodil , written for and by five-year-olds. When the article was read to children in a preschool class and then discussed, the children reacted positively to the manner in which the African children united to protect their friend from the crocodile at the risk of their own lives.

At one point the teacher introduced the idea of doing a picture book about this story together. The children were skeptical since they knew nothing about book production, but the teacher explained how books were put together and encouraged the children so that they realized it was possible to make their own book.

After the children drew pictures and helped compose a text, they selected which pictures were to appear as illustrations. Yet, they are not happy because all the profits go to the robbers, who use their weapons to intimidate the villagers.

Finally, the children, who are also forced to labor in a manner which they dislike, devise a plan to capture the robbers. The remarkable feature of this story is that it explains the aspects of robbery stemming from capitalist production in a concrete, humorous manner without becoming heavily theoretical.

The clear descriptions and explicit language of the narrative enhance the emancipatory value of this story, which is geared toward enabling young readers to understand the work process as a form of liberation.

Generally speaking, Basis books are directly related to the actual class struggles in West Germany. The major figures are from the working class, and the contents of the stories are, broadly speaking, of utmost concern to the underprivileged in society and lead to developing class consciousness.

Some of the stories tend to be too didactic as if the significance of the message itself were enough to strike the imagination of children.

Obviously, this is a failing which Basis of late has been attempting to rectify. For the most part, the language of the books is vigorous and blunt; colloquialisms and curses are used because children are accustomed to hearing them in their surroundings—used to explain their surroundings.

The authors do not talk down to the children. They employ a great deal of irony in the depictions, and the techniques of photography, comics, and montage dialectically enhance the communicability of the theory.

At the same time, the books also transcend the category of "children" or "childish," for adults can learn and enjoy in producing and reading them.

The books of Weismann Verlag 15 also point in this direction. A socialist collective which is not as active as the Basis Verlag in day-care and youth centers, the Weismann group has published over ten books, mainly by teenagers.

The Weismann books are not as directly concerned with immediate German social problems. One book, Herr Bertolt Brecht sagt Mr.

Bertolt Brecht Says, , is a collection of anecdotes, stories, and poems by Brecht. Eltern Spielen, Kinder Lernen Parents Play, Children Learn, by Wolfram Frommlet, Hans Mayhofer, and Wolfgang Zacharias is a handbook mainly for adults about how to start community groups which want to create better play conditions for children.

In general, the Weismann Verlag is more concerned with explaining social issues to teenagers and explicating socialist theories.

The following three books are most typical of their general policy: Consequently, Poppie is neglected and flounders. She decides that the only way to survive in a capitalist society is by selling oneself.

So, she becomes a prostitute. At one point she meets a radical who takes a sincere interest in her and promises to explain to her what enlightenment means and why she is a victim of capitalism.

Rauter is even more theoretical in his book. His major thesis is that individuals are made in schools, that is, through education which consists of the home, movies, television, theater, radio, newspapers, books, and posters.

Using concrete examples, Rauter explains how the media and schools produce conformists and nonthinkers.

With each point he makes, he draws closer to his conclusion that we all must turn the education process around so that we can control our lives and prevent further production of passive, perverse human beings.

Wallraff is a type of Ralph Nader , with the exception that Wallraff has dealt with exposing the sordid conditions in factories and business firms by working in them.

Over the past seven years often with the help of pseudonyms and disguises he has held jobs in different plants and firms throughout West Germany and has revealed the exploitative methods of capitalists.

His book is a report about his activities which begins with a description in diary form of how he was maltreated by the army as a conscientious objector and how he then worked at different factories, wrote for newspapers, and was subjected to harassment by big industry and the government.

All three of these Weismann books are noteworthy for the respect they pay teenagers. Words are not minced. These books are written in a clear, intelligible language which makes the theory and connections drawn to the social realities comprehensible for young readers.

Sparse illustrations, generally photographic montages, are used effectively to reveal existing contradictions in society.

All Weismann books lay great emphasis on authenticity and documentation. Many are limited in their appeal to a young progressive intelligentsia because of their abstract quality, but their socialist perspective and edifying aspect provide a basis within the material itself for readers of all social classes to understand the theoretical arguments.

In this sense, the difficulty presented by the Weismann publications lies not so much in the books themselves as in the educational system which restricts the use of such books in the classroom.

Most notably, Rowohlt Verlag, one of the largest and best houses in West Germany, has started a series called Rotfuchs Red Fox under the general editorship of Uwe Wandrey.

The series began in April , and well over sixty inexpensive paperbacks with superb artwork and photography have been published since then. Most of the authors are already well known in West Germany.

The general policy of Rotfuchs is one of cultural pluralism. That is, the series contains books which range in their critique of society from mildly reformist to socialist.

The age groups addressed are anywhere from five to fourteen. Some of the books are limited in their appeal to a distinct age group, whereas others cut across age and social class differences.

Here are brief summaries of seven books which will convey an impression of the spectrum of this series. With amusing, unusual illustrations of elephants competing against one another, Hopf brings out in her narrative how sports can be fun.

Here a young man invents a table cloth and a magic stick which are expropriated by a factory owner in order to intimidate the workers and hold them in his power.

In the end, they take charge of the factory and their own lives. Here, too, the illustrations are pertinent, subtle, and comical. After he mistakenly paints XY on people whom he suspects to be criminal, the young boy is severely punished by his parents.

Consequently, he decides to run away, and he comes across a mysterious stranger in the woods who helps and comforts him.

The stranger turns out to be the wanted thief, with whom the boy decides to live until both are captured by the police. Here the illustrations are stark and photogenic.

There is no preaching, but the boy learns that there is another side to criminality than that which he views on television.

He has a quarrel with her, and she disappears. Helmut goes looking for her and winds up by exploring the entire city, which becomes his playground.

After several hours of seeing different aspects of city life, Helmut returns home only to find that his sister had been hiding in the cellar.

Both promise not to upset their parents by telling what happened during the day. The story is filled with photos of Helmut in the city that depict social and work conditions.

Helmut is pictured neither as cute nor heroic, but rather curious and alert. He responds to an emergency situation with remarkable calm and understanding.

In this sense the journey is beneficial because Herbert and the young reader as well realizes that time cannot be allowed to control his life.

Here a young girl gives a candid account of her life and views of family, sex, society, the role of women, and her possibilities for a career.

The advantage of the left-liberal policy of the Rotfuchs series is also its disadvantage. The Rotfuchs books speak to many different audiences and propose various alternatives to the existing social system.

Some indicate revolution, some reform. Some see change coming about by developing the creative and cognitive faculties of children while others seek to raise class consciousness.

The mode of portrayal ranges from the parable, fable, and surreal to the realistic and documentary. The language is generally high German, although slang is used.

All classes of children are lumped together, and no overall didactic goal can be ascertained, except to say that the series wants to teach critical thinking.

This is its disadvantage since many of the books in the series contradict one another and are at odds in their fundamental educational goals.

Without a clear-cut policy, the books will be consumed indiscriminately by children who will learn to tolerate different views but not really learn how to think critically in a social context and historical manner.

The socialist books have been especially influential in several ways. They use plain, everyday language which corresponds to that most familiar to both children and adults.

It is intelligible and clear but not childish and simplistic, and it serves to enhance the learning ability of the readers, not to compensate for inadequate education.

Story-lines address themselves to actual problems in present-day Germany. Boys and girls are treated as equals, and traditional role-playing is brought into question.

The heroes and the heroines are the collective. Emphasis is placed on struggle and solidarity. The perspective of the story is a general socialist one.

The resolution of problems is not made easy, for there is no happy end. Photographs and comics are used in unique ways to convey a clear picture of social conditions and contradictions.

The art work is subtle and fosters original thinking and appreciation. Socialist theory helps clarify the social disparities encountered by children in concrete situations.

The production of the books is geared to the reception by children. An earnest attempt is made by the producers either to involve children in the production process or to write books which pertain to the interests of children and stimulate class consciousness and solidarity.

As Dieter Richter has noted, 19 the books serve to bring together adults and children and to promote a common critical and creative activity. But will it survive?

This dilemma can only be solved as more contact with educational institutions and the working classes is established.

The reason for this, as Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge have remarked, is that:. It does not allow itself to be organized in small groups.

When children attempt to organize for themselves and herein regulate their lives, it cannot be their intention to pay for their freedom of space by completely withdrawing from reality and withdrawing from the adult world, which is the prime link to the source of all objects together and to the children.

Therefore, the public sphere of children cannot be brought about without a material public sphere which connects the parents, and without public spheres of children at all levels and in all classes of society which are able to be brought into contact with one another….

Self-organization and self-regulation of children will be just as vehemently disputed by all kinds of authoritarian interests as is the self-organization of the proletariat.

Whoever thinks that the public sphere of children is a grotesque idea will have difficulty conceiving what the public sphere of the proletariat really is.

Negt and Kluge argue that the public sphere has historically become dominated and institutionalized mainly by the bourgeoisie, and there is no sector of public education, communication, assembly, production, or distribution which does not serve the interests of this ruling class.

For society to become truly free, democratic, and socialist, they assert that a proletarian public sphere must be created so that people will become aware of their own genuine material needs and desires and the ways to fulfill these needs and desires.

This means an intrusion into the bourgeois public sphere. Concomitantly there is a problem of co-optation, whereby the bourgeois public sphere appropriates the new forms developed in behalf of children and the proletariat.

To be more precise, most of the books produced by Basis and Weismann are handled by radical bookstores or are sold through the mail.

In this respect, its ultimate worth will depend on how we in the West not only in West Germany value the future we glimpse in the eyes of our children.

See my article, "Educating, Miseducating, and Re-educating Children: There has been such a prodigious output of noteworthy studies that it would take a small pamphlet to list them all.

Some of the more important ones are: Johannes Beck et al. For the most recent criticism by the New Left, see the special issues of Kursbuch , vol.

Dieter Richter and Jochen Vogt Reinbek, Klaus Doderer Weinheim, , pp. It is more than a simple parody in that it incorporates emancipatory features into a critique of authoritarian behavior.

Karl Ernst Maier Bad Heilbrunn, , pp. The title of the comic book is Lehrlingsfront 1 , and the photographic story, Liebe Mutter, mir geht es gut.

Weismann has recently joined with Raith Verlag of Munich, a progressive firm which has concentrated on publishing books dealing with psychology and education.

Gmelin and Monika Sperr. The picture book has proved to be a fruitful field of study for inquiries into the narrative potential of the fixed image.

It has generated a rather sophisticated body of theory over the last 20 years or so, which leaves the conventional view of the picture book as a basically verbal artifact supported by pictures far behind.

Contemporary studies of the picture book approach its pictorial dimension as an independent semiotic system in its own right, which does not necessarily concur with the verbal component, rather than as a mere prop to the verbal story.

Both words and images make their own relatively autonomous contribution to the overall semantic, aesthetic and emotional effect of the picture book.

Therefore, it has often been observed that the picture book is closer to other mixed narrative forms such as drama or film than to verbal fiction.

Given the general consensus on the substantial weight of both pictorial and verbal narrative codes in the picture book, it is only logical that many studies attempt to give an overview of the different types of interaction between words and images in this surprisingly complex art form.

According to Perry Nodelman, words and pictures can never simply repeat or parallel each other, because of the inherent differences between verbal and visual modes of communication.

They can, however, visually demonstrate attitudes, while words are incapable of directly expressing emotion through shape and color.

Because visual and verbal modes of communication are subject to diverging sets of constraints, the images in a picture book can never simply illustrate the words, but will necessarily offer different types of information to the reader: Thus, Maria Nikolajeva and Carole Scott have come up with the categories of symmetrical, enhancing, complementary, counterpointing and contradictory interaction.

In symmetrical interaction, words and pictures basically repeat each other. In the case of counterpointing interaction, words and images generate meanings "beyond the scope of either one alone" p.

Thus, the book provides us with the opportunity to study the word-image dynamic in embryo. It originated as a Christmas gift for his 4-year-old son Carl in Hoffmann, who practised medicine in Frankfurt, wanted to buy his son a book, but he could not find anything to his liking in the Frankfurt bookstores.

Books for young children were too moralistic and didactic, in his view, and he was displeased with their illustrations. These, he felt, were too smooth, too realistic, too unimaginative to interest young children.

And so he set about creating a picture book of his own, which did not only turn him into one of the first, but also one of the most successful creators of a "pictorialized" 8 narrative in the history of German literature.

Der Struwwelpeter was not only a bestseller, but also a spectacular longseller. It has gone through some editions and is still in print today.

Certainly, this fact in itself is enough to make anyone wonder what the secret could be of the enduring appeal of this picture book.

However, I do not want to use Der Struwwelpeter merely as an accessory to the semiotics of word-image combinations. Some have it that Der Struwwelpeter advocates the harsh and cruel subjection of naughty children, others argue on the contrary that he ridicules adult authority.

Siding with the latter party, I hope to point out that contemporary insights into visual narrativity may help to shed new light on this issue.

The visual prologue offers important clues to the interpretation of what is to follow. The page lay-out of the frontispiece has been composed out of three symmetrical sections.

The top section displays an angelic creature with wings and a crown who holds out a picture book and is sided by two illuminated Christmas trees.

The bottom section contains a picture of a boy who is eating his soup at the dinner table. Judging from their clothes and their size, these three boys are one and the same person.

Where the left-right division of the page is concerned, we may observe that the angel is positioned in the middle of the top section. This position is mirrored by the boy in the bottom section.

The ethereal nature of the angelic creature is emphasized by the fact that its feet are hidden from view. It is not grounded in any sort of way, it simply floats, in contrast to the picture of the boy at the dinner table, which conspicuously displays the legs of both table and chair, firmly putting the boy on the ground.

Thus, the frontispiece turns heaven and earth into contiguous domains. In other words, there is a certain give-and-take between heaven and earth.

These connotations will prove to be important to the interpretation of the picture book as a whole, as I shall point out later on.

Turning the page, we are confronted with the title story. It features the icon of a boy on an ornamental pedestal sporting exceedingly long hair and fingernails.

The pedestal is decorated by a comb and a scissors, which flank the inscription of the accompanying text as ornamental trophies.

The words of the title story are uttered by the same "voice of authority" who produced the lines on the frontispiece, namely an external narrator who does not figure as a character in the scenes presented to us.

The messages uttered on the frontispiece and the title story are complementary to each other. In the first case, juvenile readers are lured into identification with the obedient children in the pictures through the promise of a gift, while they are discouraged from identifying themselves with the filthy boy in the title story through the threat of physical discomfort.

Shock-headed Peter is offered up to the juvenile reader as an object of ridicule and disgust. The public is supposed to scoff at him, in unison with the external narrator.

The title story exhorts the audience to bond with the voice of authority at the expense of the young protagonist of the story, who is put in the pillory as a target of disidentification.

The word-image dynamic in the title story is theatrical rather than dramatic in the strict sense of the word. The verbal story represents the events from the point of view of the child hero, but in the pictures the main characters tend to figure as the object rather than the subject of focalization, that is, the picture represents the child, rather than the field of vision of the main character.

In the case of Der Struwwelpeter , both words and pictures are external. Shock-headed Peter does not get to speak a single line, nor do the other children in the stories that are to follow, but for the one exception of "Suppen-Kaspar".

Just like the frontispiece, this already gives us a foretaste of the tight fit between the words and the pictures of Der Struwwelpeter.

The pictures act out the words quite literally and vice versa. The juvenile reader is invited to cast a scornful glance upon this depraved child and therefore the accompanying picture puts him up for exposure.

The frontispiece and the title story together set the stage for what is to follow. They suggest that we will be presented with a collection of cautionary tales which instill notions of appropriate behaviour into the audience by confronting readers with the consequences of certain deeds.

These consequences function as so many rewards or punishments mostly the latter. At first glance, the subsequent stories seem to meet these expectations.

If we want to subsume the misdeeds in the Struwwelpeter stories under a common denominator, one could say that the various child protagonists are all guilty of being unable to control their spontaneous bodily impulses.

As soon as they begin to move about while giving in to this or that urgent inclination, they are in for trouble. In other words, they all fail to conform to the quiet and subdued types of behaviour displayed by the frontispiece.

In general, there hardly seems to be any need for human intention or intervention here. Evil punishes itself in Der Struwwelpeter through merciless cause-and-effect chains that are forged by ineradicable natural laws.

Words and pictures closely cooperate to evoke the appearance of objectivity and inevitability in the Struwwelpeter stories.

The pictures indeed obey rigid codes in certain respects. The critical moment at which a child decides to ignore an interdiction is always clearly indicated by visual signs.

Except for "Suppen-Kaspar", the child protagonists are drawn en face as long as they stay in their proper place.

They are drawn en profil as soon as they decide to follow their own impulses, which is always a sure sign that their lives will be at stake within a few moments.

Furthermore, the pictures tend to represent the consequences of the deeds that are reported in the verbal text In other words, the pictures usually depict phenomena that succeed the events recorded by the words.

If we are told that "Suppen-Kaspar" literally starves himself to death, the final picture does not show his corpse, but his tombstone.

A rather humorless word-picture dynamic, or so it seems! At this point, one may well wonder how the epithets "lustig" and "drollig" apply to the Struwwelpeter stories.

What could possibly be so funny about all this? It is time for a second look. If we subject the visual narrativity of Der Struwwelpeter to a closer analysis, we may chance upon a whole array of features that complicate the comments given in the above.

Let us return to the title story for a moment. I have suggested that the child protagonist is presented to the juvenile reading audience as a target of scorn.

However, the style in which Shock-headed Peter has been drawn invites us to reconsider this interpretation. Like all the other characters in Der Struwwelpeter , he has been drawn in an emphatically clumsy manner.

This is how children draw puppets: Although Hoffmann earned his living as a doctor and dabbled in the composition of picture books, this does not mean that he could not do any better than that.

The pictures are likely to give child readers the idea that they could easily achieve something like that as well, a first step towards overcoming dislike.

Furthermore, although the verbal text indeed emphatically pillories this filthy child, the fact of the matter is that the picture which literally incorporates the text has not really put him in a pillory but on a monumental, decorated pedestal, which is a sign of honor rather than humiliation.

Lastly, Shock-headed Peter does not betray even the faintest trace of shame or regret. He neither cowers nor casts down his eyes.

On the contrary, he stares back at the spectator in defiance. True enough, words and pictures concur very closely indeed in Der Struwwelpeter , apparently leaving hardly any room for the ironical freedom of interpretation that picture books are appreciated for nowadays.

But as a matter of fact, their fit is a little too close for comfort, and this is exactly the point at which irony comes into play. This hyperbolic image evokes bathos rather than pathos.

Moreover, it casts doubt upon the preceding sequence of events. If the cats are apparently able to call forth this much water, why did they not do so before in order to quench the flames consuming poor Harriet?

Once doubt begins to creep in, we may notice another tell-tale detail in the final picture, namely the purple ribbons in the tails of the cats.

In the case of the tearful cats, there is a strong congruence between words and pictures, because the picture takes the verbal metaphor literally.

An even more salient example of this device is offered by the tailor in the story about the thumb-sucker. Although the punishment of the thumb-sucker is perhaps the most frightening episode of all, its cruelty is mitigated by the way in which the tailor has been drawn.

The tailor wielding the scissors is really a big pair of scissors himself: One does not encounter such creatures in everyday life: A close reading of the illustrations reveals, however, that visual balance and symmetry undermine rather than uphold the hierarchy between adult authorities and disobedient children.

Take, for instance, the symmetries in the top-bottom and left-right segmentation of the page. As I have already remarked in my analysis of the frontispiece, several pages in this picture book have a three-tiered lay-out.

In the visual prologue, the top layer featuring "das Christkind" is suggestive of a spiritual realm, while the two layers below connote quotidian reality and the realm of our basic bodily drives.

The three pages that make up this story have an identical tripartite segmentation, but it conflates the semantic connotations of higher and lower levels of being.

The realm of quotidian reality which is capable of redemption through the descent of the heavenly creature in the visual prologue, has been downgraded to the bottom of the page, while the middle section pictures Frederick sadistically tearing off the wings of a fly, which are faintly reminiscent of the winged angel in the top section of the visual prologue.

Obviously, there is no aspiration towards transcendence in this story. The conflation of higher and lower levels of being is aggravated on the second page, through the visual trickery with the stairway.

One would expect movement to proceed from bottom to top, as we see Frederick climbing the stairs leading him from the bottom section to the top section of the page.

However, the order of events as narrated by the words proceeds from top to bottom: These events also reveal that the lower species the animal triumphs over the higher one the human , an illegitimate victory which is consummated in the third and last page of the story.

The chair and table are exactly identical to the pieces of furniture which occupied the bottom section of the frontispeice.

Here they have moved one place up. The realm of quotidian reality has made way for the realm of the instinctual.

This is not as it should be. This destabilization of the hierarchy between the spiritual, the quotidian and the instinctual is not unique to this story, as a comparison with "Die Geschichte von den schwarzen Buben" points out.

This story also opens with the three-tiered set-up that we have grown familiar with by now. The middle section shows two boys with toys, while the bottom section represents a boy with food a pretzel , appropriately enough.

In the concluding page, the hierarchy between up and down which was already in disarray to begin with has disappeared entirely: Here, again, the higher has succumbed to the lower rather than the other way around.

Where the left-right segmentation of the page is concerned, the Struwwelpeter stories also cause confusion. Within the Western pictorial tradition, convention has it that movement proceeds from the left to the right side of the picture.

In Der Struwwelpeter , however, movement may proceed in both directions, which makes it difficult to infer priority from the visual information. On the first page of "Die Geschichte von den schwarzen Buben", the young black-a-moor is walking along from left to right.

In the fourth and last page of the story, however, he is walking in the opposite direction, together with Kaspar, Ludwig and Wilhelm. The continual conflations of the upper and lower levels and the left and right sides of the page graphically embody the instability of hierarchy in the Struwwelpeter stories.

This instability is epitomized in a recurrent motif in both the visual and the verbal component of this picture book, namely the interchange-ability of humans and animals.

Like animals, children are considered to be prone to their instincts, contrary to adults, who have undergone a civilizing process. In Der Struwwelpeter , however, both children and adults give way to animals.

As has already become apparent from my analysis of the page layout, there are strong resonances between the pictures of the various Struwwelpeter stories.

The boy in the bottom section of the first page of the story about the inky boys holds the pretzel in his hand that is displayed in the top right corner of the frontispiece.

The soup that the good boy in the bottom section of the frontispiece is eating returns in the story about "Suppen-Kaspar". It is not just visual structures and objects that recur from one story to another.

The motif of submersion, for instance, figures quite prominently in Der Struwwelpeter. In the fourth story, the three boys mocking the young black-a-moor are submerged in a well of ink by Saint Nicholas.

The wild hunter seeks refuge in a well, while "Hans Guck-in-die-Luft" nearly drowns in a river. Once we have registered the recurrence of the element Water, we may grow sensitive towards the presence of the other three elements as well.

The element Earth is introduced in the fifth story, when the wild hunter lays down on the ground in order to take a nap, which is the beginning of his undoing.

It is prominent in the story about "Suppen-Kaspar" who starves and is buried underground, while it returns in the story about "Zappel-Philipp", who undergoes a pseudo-burial as he falls down to the ground and is subsequently buried underneath the table-cloth and all the dishes it supported.

The element Air, finally, is introduced in the frontispiece through the winged angel who dwells in heaven, it returns in the temptation of "Hans Guck-in-die-Luft" who cannot take his eyes from the sky above, while it dominates the story about flying Robert.

On a yet higher level of abstraction, one could point to rhymes between the ways in which the pages are structured, which I have already discussed to some extent.

There is still a device that demands our attention within this context, namely the artful ways in which Hoffmann has framed the pages of his picture book.

It is not just that the characters tend to be put up for view on pedestals, stages and placed against the background of theatrical backdrops, it is also that both words and pictures are unified into one visual whole by elaborate decorations that frame the page and thereby visually emphasize the fact that these narrative episodes are products of art, rather than slices of life.

As these framing devices became more and more elaborate and emphatic when Hoffmann revised and expanded the collection of stories for the edition, we may legitimately suppose that he attached considerable importance to them.

They are prominent to the extreme in the final story, whose scenes are literally surrounded by portrait frames.

In other words, the three episodes constituting the story of flying Robert are presented to the reader as paintings that are hanging up on the wall.

The great Nicholas in the fourth story has command over a gigantic pen and an equally formidable ink-well. The boys emerging out of his ink-well look like silhouettes or papercuts.

It is impossible to mistake them for real boys, if only because they maintain one and the same bodily posture throughout the story, no matter what happens to them.

The Nicholas who wields the gigantic quill represents authorship, and as such, he reminds the audience of the fact that the creatures they are presented with are really figments of the imagination.

As this blatantly unrealistic episode is linked up with other episodes through the device of visual rhyme, it is suggested that the other protagonists are cardboard figures as well.

A close reading of the pictorial aspects of Der Struwwelpeter enables us to become somewhat more specific about the narrativity of pictures.

As I have remarked before, the verbal stories come across as cautionary tales in the first instance, which teach children that if you do x, y will inevitably happen.

This collection of stories seems to feature a relatively arbitrary selection of ordinary German children, carrying ordinary German names such as "Friederich", "Kaspar" or "Konrad.

However, this generic categorization becomes problematic when we are prepared to give equal weight to the visual aspects of the Struwwelpeter stories.

In the case of a photonarrative, a particular selection of shots has been arranged in such a way that a story emerges.

Likewise, Hoffmann has arranged the pictures making up the various Struwwelpeter stories in such a way that a story emerges even without the support of the verbal text.

These visual stories are a lot more playful and subversive than their verbal counterparts. Furthermore, in the case of photo-narratives, any photograph in the series may be linked up with any other photograph on the basis of some resemblance between the scene depicted, the types of shot used, or the print characteristics.

These translinear networks of comparable photographs may be suggestive of yet another storyline. Nevertheless I try to get something done.

What are your plans for this year? Tuesday, December 25, stamps. Saturday, December 15, aged. The latest drawing seemed to be perfect for this comic book mockup.

In this case quite aged looking Den Traum einmal ein Comic zu zeichnen, schwirrt schon eine ganze Weile in meinem Kopf herum.

Sunday, November 11, tea time. Sunday, October 28, minimammuthus. Monday, September 17, barefoot. My gratitude goes to the KON-BigBand which played live later on the same day and provided the right background music for the video clip.

Monday, September 3, drunken pen.

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4 Responses

  1. Mejar says:

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  3. Tom says:

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  4. Dira says:

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